Before starting this post, I would like to say that in this article I will only focus on the series of novels of A Song of Ice and Fire, and not on the HBO adaptation. I also want to warn readers that this post contains explicit scenes of rape and sexual violence.
The dark fantasy series of novels, A Song of Ice and Fire written by George R. R. Martin, is set in a medieval-inspired universe, which emphasises the brutality described in the books as this era has the reputation for being brutal, and it contains graphically violent scenes of war, death, and rape. The series has five books published so far and tells the story of different kingdoms fighting to access the Iron Throne using every means to obtain it, such as war, political machinations, or treachery. The one who gains this throne would govern all the kingdom. Sexual violence as a recurring theme of the novels represents a variety of different issues linked with patriarchy and sexism, such as the rape of women, and their objectification, as they are treated like a piece of merchandise when they are given to a man in a marriage with no regards to their feelings. Patriarchy is a system that gives power to men while subordinating women. (Butler, 2006 p.56). In some cases, raping a woman is a way to objectify and possess her, as Robert does to Cersei. Cersei herself rapes another female character to impose her superiority over someone else, and to attempt to escape the patriarchal oppression in which she is imprisoned. This behaviour is coherent with Cersei’s general behaviour throughout the story. She spends the five novels struggling to keep as much power as she can, first as a queen, then as a regent for both her sons. Thus, claiming power through rape is only one more attempt by her to seize more power. Other characters, such as Gregor Clegane and his men, use rape to assert power over someone weaker than them. Consequently, it seems like rape is an issue that touches both sexuality and power.
In the Song of Ice and Fire series sexual acts are often used to reflect the characters’ personality. Thus, much can be said about the characters who perpetrate rape; when Robert raped Cersei, he was always drunk. (Martin, 2005, p.692). Furthermore, Robert assumes that because Cersei is his wife, he has the right to have intercourse with her, even if she does not consent. This way of thinking is one of the principles of the patriarchal system present in the Westerosi society. The rape of a wife by her husband is not considered as a rape, but simply as a normal sexual intercourse between a married couple because what matters is what the husband wants. The patriarchal system, which is also present in the real world, places men at the top of the hierarchy by promoting male privileges and by subordinating women. (Butler, 2006, p.57). The conjugal rape of Cersei by Robert is representative of the subordination of women. Women are seen as inferior to men because they do not have power over men, nor over their own lives, so much so that they are seen as having no desires of their own. Wives are then subordinate to their husbands because their will and desires are not considered, and because they must obey their husband’s every decision. Thus, Robert does not ask Cersei’s permission before sexual intercourse because, as his wife, she must obey him.
Instead of accepting her subordination, Cersei chooses to try and act like a man to obtain some of the privileges reserved to men. To feel like a man, in a society where domination is linked with masculinity and power and where women are powerless and only valuable as child bearers, she rapes Lady Taena, one of her companions:
Cersei wondered what it would feel like to suckle on those breasts, to lay the Myrish woman on her back and push her legs apart and use her as a man would use her, the way Robert would use her when the drink was in him (Martin, 2005, p.685).
In this passage from Cersei’s perspective, her motivation for the rape is quite clear. She wants to rape Lady Taena not because she is attracted to her, but because she wants to have the same sexual experience as a man raping a woman. Moreover, she is comparing what she is about to do to Lady Taena, with what Robert did to her. She states that she wants to “use” Lady Taena as Robert “used” her. The choice of the verb “use” for sexual intercourse reveals how Cersei felt when Robert raped her, as well as the presence of the patriarchal system in the novels. The verb “use” is mostly applied in the context of using objects, thus, choosing this verb to describe a sexual encounter reinforces the objectification of the other that is a fundamental aspect of rape. Cersei was objectified by her husband; thus, she objectifies another woman to take a man’s place and gain a man’s privilege, at least regarding other women. Her actions can be likened to what Deniz Kandiyoti called the patriarchal bargain (Butler, 2006, p.60). Kandiyoti explains that women employ strategies to gain a degree of power and freedom within the patriarchal system (Kandiyoti, 1988, p.276). By acting like a man Cersei is attempting to make a bargain with the patriarchal system of Westeros to become empowered. The bargain she is attempting to make with her patriarchal society is that by gaining power over other women via rape she would be able to acquire some power, thus gaining some male privileges. However, by gaining power she sacrifices another woman’s power, removing her agency, objectifying her, and re-enacting what Robert did to her (Fraser, 2015, p.152; Young, 2017, p.52). Cersei is attempting to break free from an oppressive system, but she is unsuccessful because she has internalised the misogyny and prejudice of her society (Carroll, 2018, pp.65 -66). By having a woman raping another woman, Martin could have wanted to show the damage that rape could have on women by representing Cersei’s rape as part of her trauma. This can also be linked with the damage patriarchy could cause. A man hurt Cersei so her only option to get some power back is to hurt another woman. However, with this scene Martin has also been criticised. He was accused of writing it only for the benefit of male readers’ fantasies, which is a recurrent problem in fantasy literature (Carroll 2010, p.103).
Besides, Cersei states that during a war, rape victims ‘were probably praying for a good raping’ (Martin, 2005, p.674). Being herself a victim of rape, she shows no compassion for other women in the same predicament. On the contrary, she is expressing the sexist opinion that if a woman has been raped it was probably because she was asking for it (Fraser, 2015, p.174).
Gregor Clegane and his men also use rape to express power and domination over people weaker than them. They rape the daughter of an inn keeper just because they could, and because the father of the victim was powerless to defend her (Carroll, 2018, p.90). This rape was perpetrated not only because of a sexual drive, but also because the men were in a position of power over the inn keeper and his daughter, and they abused it. One of the men who gangraped the inn keeper’s daughter said after the fact that, ‘maybe she’d decide she liked it after all’ as the young girl stops resisting (Martin, 1998, pp.467, 468). This statement carries the idea, also present in our modern society, that for a woman to be a ‘true victim of rape she had to prove that she had been fighting her aggressor’ (Fraser, 2015, p.174). Moreover, what the soldier declared after the rape echoes what Cersei will say two books later when speaking about war victims being raped, that they were waiting to be raped.
In the series A Song of Ice and Fire rape and sexual violence is a recurrent theme. It is used in the novels to emphasis the harsh and medieval environment in which the characters exist. In addition, it also represents the personality of the characters, as seen by Cersei’s selfishness and hunger for power, or Clegane’s brutality. Rape is also a reflection of the oppressive patriarchy that is present in the Westeros society. Despite graphic depictions of rape within the novels, the author makes no effort to show how the victims of rape overcome their trauma, except in the case of Cersei.
Butler, Judith, (2006) History Matters: Patriarchy and the Challenge of Feminism, University of Pennsylvania Press
Carroll, S. (2018) “Frontmatter”, in Medievalism in A Song of Ice and Fire and Game of Thrones. Boydell & Brewer
Fraser, Courtney, (2015) ‘from “ladies first” to “asking for it”: benevolent sexism in the maintenance of rape culture’ in California Law Review vol. 103 no. PP. 141-203.
Kandiyoti, Deniz, (1988) ‘Bargaining with patriarchy’, in Gender and Society, Vol. 2, No. 3, Richmond College UK
Martin, George R.R. (1988) Clash of Kings, Voyager Books, Glasgow
Martin, George R.R. (2005) Feast for Crows, Voyager Books, Glasgow
Young, Joseph, (2017) Enough about whores: sexual characterisation in A Song of Ice and Fire. Mythlore Spring/Summer vol. 35 no. 2 PP. 45-61.